The Phalene and Papillon are essentially the same breed of dog, and there is little difference between the two except for the ears; the Papillon has ears which stand straight up, and the Phalene has ears which droop down to the sides. In most of the world, the Papillon and the Phalene are considered to be two separate breeds, but in the United States both are treated as one breed, the Papillon. The Phalène derives its name from the French word for ‘night moth’ and is the older of the two varieties of the modern Papillon; the appearance of the erect-eared variety was not documented until the 16th century. In America, the Phalene is not considered to be a distinct breed but simply a variant of the Papillon. The American Kennel Club (AKC) requires that Phalene be registered as a Papillon and shown and judged in the same class. As both the Papillon and Phalene are considered to be two versions of the same breed and share an identical history, please see the ‘Papillon’ article for more information about this breed.